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 Post subject: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:27 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:29 pm 
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Harmful effects:

Hydrogen is highly flammable and has an almost invisible flame, which can lead to accidental burns.

Characteristics:

Hydrogen is the simplest element of all, and the lightest. It is also by far the most common element in the Universe. Over 90 percent of the atoms in the Universe are hydrogen.

In its commonest form, the hydrogen atom is made of one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. Hydrogen is the only element that can exist without neutrons.

Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas which exists, at standard temperature and pressure, as diatomic molecules, H2.

It burns and forms explosive mixtures in air and it reacts violently with oxidants.

On Earth, the major location of hydrogen is in water, H2O. There is little free hydrogen on Earth because hydrogen is so light that it is not held by the planet’s gravity. Any hydrogen that forms eventually escapes from the atmosphere into space.

Although hydrogen is usually a nonmetal, it becomes a liquid metal when enormous pressures are applied to it.

Such pressures are found within gas giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. Jupiter’s high magnetic field (14 times Earth’s) is believed to be caused by a dynamo effect resulting from electrically conducting metallic hydrogen circulating as the planet rotates.


Uses of Hydrogen
Large quantities of hydrogen are used in the Haber process (production of ammonia), hydrogenation of fats and oils, methanol production, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulfurization. Hydrogen is also used in metal refining.

Liquid hydrogen is used as a rocket fuel, for example powering the Space Shuttle’s lift-off and ascent into orbit. Liquid hydrogen and oxygen are held in the Shuttle’s large, external fuel tank. (See image left.)

Hydrogen’s two heavier isotopes (deuterium and tritium) are used in nuclear fusion.

The hydrogen economy has been proposed as a replacement for our current hydrocarbon (oil, gas and coal) based economy.

The basis of the hydrogen economy is that energy is produced when hydrogen combusts with oxygen and the only by-product from the reaction is water.

At the moment, however, the hydrogen for hydrogen-powered cars is produced from hydrocarbons. Only when solar or wind energies, for example, can be used commercially to split water into hydrogen and oxygen will a true hydrogen economy be possible.


Abundance and Isotopes
Abundance earth’s crust: 1400 parts per million by weight (0.14%), 2.9% by moles

Abundance solar system: 75% by weight, 93% by moles

Cost, pure: $12 per 100g

Cost, bulk: $ per 100g

Source: Hydrogen is prepared commercially by reacting superheated steam with methane or carbon. In the laboratory, hydrogen can be produced by the action of acids on metals such as zinc or magnesium, or by the electrolysis of water (shown on the left).

Isotopes: Hydrogen has three isotopes, 1H (protium), 2H (deuterium) and 3H (tritium). Its two heavier isotopes (deuterium and tritium) are used for nuclear fusion. Protium is the most abundant isotope, and tritium the least abundant. Tritium is unstable with a half-life of about 12 years 4 months. Naturally occurring hydrogen is a mixture of the two isotopes 1H and 2H with natural abundances of 99.99% and 0.01% respectively.


References
1. Peter Hoffmann, Tomorrow’s Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet., (2001) p22. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
2. P. Litherland Teed, The Chemistry and Manufacture of Hydrogen., (2008) p2. Dabney Press.
3. John S. Davidson, Annotations to Boyle’s “The Sceptical Chymist”.
4. Andreas Züttel, Andreas Borgschulte, Louis Schlapbach, Hydrogen as a future energy carrier., (2008) p8. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
5. Kendall Haven, 100 Greatest Science Discoveries of All Time., (2007) p62. Libraries Unlimited.

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:32 pm 
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thank you google

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:33 pm 
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Discovery of Oxygen
Dr. Doug Stewart
Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley in England and two years earlier, but unpublished, by Carl W. Scheele in Sweden.

Scheele heated several compounds including potassium nitrate, manganese oxide, and mercury oxide and found they released a gas which enhanced combustion.

Priestley heated mercury oxide, focusing sunlight using a 12-inch ‘burning lens’ – a very large magnifying glass – to bring the oxide to a high temperature. Priestley’s lens was smaller than the enormous one used by Antoine Lavoisier in his investigation of carbon. (Shown on Chemicool’s carbon page.)

Totally unexpectedly, the hot mercury oxide yielded a gas that made a candle burn five times faster than normal. Priestley wrote: “But what surprised me more than I can well express was that a candle burned in this air with a remarkably vigorous flame. I was utterly at a loss how to account for it.” (1)

In addition to noticing the effect of oxygen on combustion, Priestley later noted the new gas’s biological role. He placed a mouse in a jar of oxygen, expecting it would survive for 15 minutes maximum before it suffocated. Instead, the mouse survived for a whole hour and was none the worse for it.(2)

Antoine Lavoisier carried out similar experiments to Priestley’s and added to our knowledge enormously by discovering that air contains about 20 percent oxygen and that when any substance burns, it actually combines chemically with oxygen.

Lavoisier also found that the weight of the gas released by heating mercury oxide was identical to the weight lost by the mercury oxide, and that when other elements react with oxygen their weight gain is identical to the weight lost from the air.

This enabled Lavoisier to state a new fundamental law: the law of the conservation of matter; “matter is conserved in chemical reactions” or, alternatively, “the total mass of a chemical reaction’s products is identical to the total mass of the starting materials.”

In addition to these achievements, it was Lavoisier who first gave the element its name oxygen. (2a)

The word oxygen is derived from the Greek words ‘oxys’ meaning acid and ‘genes’ meaning forming.

Before it was discovered and isolated, a number of scientists had recognized the existence of a substance with the properties of oxygen:

In the early 1500s Leonardo da Vinci observed that a fraction of air is consumed in respiration and combustion.(3)

In 1665 Robert Hooke noted that air contains a substance which is present in potassium nitrate [potassium nitrate releases oxygen when heated,] and a larger quantity of an unreactive substance [which we call nitrogen].(3)

In 1668 John Mayow wrote that air contains the gas oxygen [he called it nitroarial spirit], which is consumed in respiration and burning.(3),(4)

Mayow observed that: substances do not burn in air from which oxygen is absent; oxygen is present in the acid part of potassium nitrate [i.e., in the nitrate - he was right!]; animals absorb oxygen into their blood when they breathe; air breathed out by animals has less oxygen in it than fresh air.

Appearance and Characteristics
Harmful effects:

O2 is non-toxic under normal conditions.

However, exposure to oxygen at higher than normal pressures, e.g. scuba divers, can lead to convulsions.

Ozone (O3) is toxic and if inhaled can damage the lungs.

Characteristics:

Oxygen in its common form (O2) is a colorless, odorless and tasteless diatomic gas.

Oxygen is extremely reactive and forms oxides with nearly all other elements except noble gases.

Oxygen dissolves more readily in cold water than warm water. As a result of this, our planet’s cool, polar oceans are more dense with life than the warmer, tropical oceans.

Liquid and solid oxygen are pale blue and are strongly paramagnetic.

Ozone (O3), another form (allotrope) of oxygen, occurs naturally in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. It is made by the action of ultraviolet light on O2. Ozone shields us from much of the harmful ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. In Earth’s early atmosphere, before oxygen and hence ozone levels were sufficiently high, the ultraviolet radiation reaching our planet’s surface would have been lethal to many organisms.(5)

The reaction with oxygen is one of the criteria we use to distinguish between metals (these form basic oxides) and non-metals (these form acidic oxides).


Uses of Oxygen
The major commercial use of oxygen is in steel production. Carbon impurities are removed from steel by reaction with oxygen to form carbon dioxide gas.

Oxygen is also used in oxyacetylene welding, as an oxidant for rocket fuel, and in methanol and ethylene oxide production.

Plants and animals rely on oxygen for respiration.

Pure oxygen is frequently used to help breathing in patients with respiratory ailments.


Abundance and Isotopes
Abundance earth’s crust: 46 % by weight, 60 % by moles

Abundance solar system: 9,000 ppm by weight, 700 ppm by moles

Cost, pure: $0.3 per 100g

Cost, bulk: $0.02 per 100g

Source: Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, accounting for almost half of it by mass. More than half of the atoms in the Earth’s crust are oxygen atoms. About 86 percent of the mass of Earth’s oceans is oxygen – mainly in the form of water.

Oxygen is the third most common element in the Universe, behind hydrogen and helium. It is obtained commercially from liquefied air separation plants. It can be prepared in the laboratory by electrolysis of water.

Isotopes: 13 whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 12 to 24. Naturally occurring oxygen is a mixture of its three stable isotopes and they are found in the percentages shown: 16O (99.8%), 17O (0.04%) and 18O (0.2%).


References
1. Francis Preston Venable: A Short History of Chemistry., (2009) p66. Bibliobazaar.
2. Leslie Alan Horvitz, Eureka!: Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World., (2002) p19. Wiley.
2a. Leslie Alan Horvitz, Eureka!: Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World., (2002) p20. Wiley.
3. Mary Elvira Weeks, The discovery of the elements. IV. Three important gases., J. Chem. Educ., 1932, 9 (2), p 215.
4. John Mayow, Tractatus Quinque Medico-Physici, 1674, Online Book.
5. Malcolm Dole, The Natural History of Oxygen., The Journal of General Physiology., 1965, p5-27. (pdf download).


http://www.chemicool.com/elements/oxygen.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:37 pm 
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Interesting Facts about Carbon
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon.
More compounds are known which contain carbon than don’t.
Diamond is an excellent abrasive because it is the hardest common material and it also has the highest thermal conductivity. It can grind down any substance, while the heat generated by friction is swiftly conducted away.
The carbon atoms in your body were all once part of the carbon dioxide fraction of the atmosphere.
Graphene is the thinnest, strongest material ever known.
Graphene is made of 2-dimensional atomic crystals, the first time such structures have ever been seen.
The graphite in a typical mechanical pencil has a diameter of 0.7 mm. This is equal to 2 million layers of graphene.
Car tires are black because they are about 30% carbon black, which is added to rubber to strengthen it. The carbon black also helps protect against UV damage to the tires.(8)
Carbon is made within stars when they burn helium in nuclear fusion reactions. Carbon is part of the ‘ash’ formed by helium burning.
Carbon undergoes nuclear fusion reactions in heavy stars to make neon, magnesium and oxygen.
Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe.
http://www.chemicool.com/elements/carbon.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:41 pm 
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Facts about Oxygen
By Dr. Doug Stewart
11 Interesting Facts about Element 8

1. Dry air is 21 percent oxygen, 78 percent nitrogen and 1 percent other gases.

2. Oxygen does not burn – honestly! It does, however, support the combustion of other substances. Think about it — if oxygen itself actually burnt, simply striking a match would be enough to burn all of the oxygen in our planet’s atmosphere.

3. Oxygen is about two times more soluble in water than nitrogen is. If it had the same solubility as nitrogen, much less oxygen would be present in seas, lakes and rivers, making life much more difficult for living organisms.

4. Almost two-thirds of the weight of living things comes from oxygen, mainly because living things contain a lot of water and 88.9 percent of water’s weight comes from oxygen.

5. Oxygen (O2) is unstable in our planet’s atmosphere and must be constantly replenished by photosynthesis in green plants. Without life, our atmosphere would contain almost no O2.

6. If we discover any other planets with atmospheres rich in oxygen, we will know that life is almost certainly present on these planets; significant quantities of O2 will only exist on planets when it is released by living things.

7. Just five elements make up over 90 percent of the weight in the Earth’s crust. Almost half of the weight of the crust comes from oxygen. (Silicon, aluminum, iron and calcium are the other four main elements in the crust.)

northern lights
The northern lights: A horse stands under a sky colored bright green with glowing oxygen

8. The Northern (and Southern) Lights: The green and dark-red colors in the aurora borealis (and australis) are caused by oxygen atoms.

Highly energetic electrons from the solar wind split oxygen molecules high in earth’s atmosphere into excited (high energy) atoms. These atoms lose energy by emitting photons, producing awe-inspiring light shows.

These are usually polar displays, because solar electrons accelerate along our planet’s magnetic field lines until they hit the atmosphere in the polar regions.

9. Oxygen is made in stars which have a mass of five or more Earth suns when they burn helium and carbon or just carbon in nuclear fusion reactions. Oxygen is part of the ‘ash’ formed by these nuclear fires.

10. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe.


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11. A common urban myth is that hyperventilation is caused by breathing in too much oxygen. When we hyperventilate, we breathe too quickly, and this can lead to symptoms such as headache, lightheadedness, dizziness, chest pains, tingling, slurred speech, fainting and spasms. Hyperventilation actually causes us to get rid of too much carbon dioxide from our bodies. The trouble with this is that we need carbon dioxide in our blood to stop it getting too alkaline. When we hyperventilate, we lose too much carbon dioxide, which disturbs the equilibrium of substances in our blood, causing its pH to increase; this causes the blood vessels leading to our brains to get narrower, slowing the blood flow, leading to the typical symptoms of hyperventilation.

http://www.chemicool.com/elements/oxygen-facts.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:48 pm 
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Facts about Helium
By Dr. Doug Stewart
11 Interesting Facts about Element 2

1. Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe.

2. In 1928 helium became available for the first time on the open market.

3. Helium is so light that Earth’s gravity is not strong enough to hold on to it. When helium atoms are released into the atmosphere, they rise until they escape into space.

4. Helium is one of only two natural elements that has never been observed bonding to another element in a compound. The other element is neon. Helium plasma can, however, form temporary excimer molecules with elements including sodium, fluorine and sulfur.

5. At temperatures close to absolute zero, helium condenses to a liquid with amazing properties – the properties of a superfluid, flowing with zero friction up and over the walls of containers.

6. At normal atmospheric pressure, helium does not solidify. At 25 atmospheres of pressure, helium is a solid at 0.95 K. As the pressure rises, the temperature at which solid helium exists also rises. Helium can be made solid at room temperature if the pressure rises to about 114 thousand atmospheres: that is a pressure of 1.67 million psi, or 834 tons per square inch. This is over 100 times greater than the pressure at the oceans’ deepest point, the Challenger Deep, which is almost seven miles deep (10 916 meters).

7. Helium exists in Earth’s atmosphere only because it is constantly resupplied from two sources – decay of radioactive elements on Earth, and cosmic rays, about 9% of which are high energy helium nuclei.

8. The helium we buy in cylinders is produced by the natural radioactive decay of radioactive elements in the earth’s crust – principally thorium and uranium.

9. Radioactive decay of uranium and thorium produces about 3000 metric tons of helium a year.

10. Current world production of helium is over 30 000 metric tons a year. (Helium has been accumulating for many millions of years in a few natural gas fields, therefore we can currently extract more each year than is being created by uranium and thorium decay.)

11. Helium was discovered in the Sun’s atmosphere before it was found on Earth.

http://www.chemicool.com/elements/helium-facts.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:51 pm 
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Interesting Facts about Potassium
Potassium and its close periodic table neighbor sodium are solids at room temperature. Their alloys however are not. NaK alloys containing 40 to 90 percent of potassium by weight are liquids at room temperature. The commercially available 78% K, 22% Na alloy stays liquid at temperatures as low as -12.6 oC (9.3 oF).
All living cells need potassium to maintain fluid balance, therefore we and all other forms of life on Earth need potassium minerals to survive. Potassium is available in all meats, plants and dairy products. Fruit and vegetables are the best sources of potassium.
Several neurotoxins work by disrupting our cells’ biological use of potassium. This can result in severe pain, or even death. These neurotoxins include agitoxin, charybdotoxin and margatoxin (scorpion stings), apamin (bee stings), and dendrotoxin (mamba snake bites).
Most of the universe’s potassium atoms were made in the final moments of giant stars as they exploded in supernovae. Potassium is made in the oxygen burning shell of stars when they explode. This is not normal burning, of course; it is nuclear fusion. Potassium is made, along with several other elements including sulfur, and silicon, during explosive oxygen burning in supernovae.
All plants need potassium to survive; over 90% of all human use of potassium compounds is in the manufacture of plant fertilizers.
People whose diets are low in potassium can suffer from hypokalemia. Severe hypokalemia can be life threatening. Symptoms include irregular heartbeat, fatigue, muscle cramps and constipation. It is unusual for people to be deficient in potassium solely as a result of getting too little in their diets. Usually hypokalemia is caused by other issues such as diarrhea and/or vomiting, use of antibiotics, and kidney disease.
Most people are familiar with carbon dating, which uses the decay of the radioactive carbon-14 isotope to find the ages of once-living things such as animal and plant matter. The radioactive isotope potassium-40 gives us a way of dating rocks. Potassium-40 decays to argon-40 and calcium-40 with a half-life of 1.25 billion years. The ratio of potassium-40 to argon-40 trapped in rock is used to determine how long it is since the rock has solidified.
http://www.chemicool.com/elements/potassium.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:58 pm 
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Uses of Titanium
Titanium metal is used as an alloying agent with metals including aluminum, iron, molybdenum and manganese. Alloys of titanium are mainly used in aerospace, aircraft and engines where strong, lightweight, temperature-resistant materials are needed.

As a result of its resistance to seawater, (see above) titanium is used for hulls of ships, propeller shafts and other structures exposed to the sea.

Titanium is also used in joint replacement implants, such as the ball-and-socket hip joint.

About 95% of titanium production is in the forum of titanium dioxide (titania). This intensely white pigment, with a high refractive index and strong UV light absorption, is used in white paint, food coloring, toothpaste, plastics and sunscreen.

Titanium is used in several everyday products such as drill bits, bicycles, golf clubs, watches and laptop computers.
http://www.chemicool.com/elements/titanium.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 9:59 pm 
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The importance of the sodium-potassium pump to our lives is shown by the fact that it uses one-third of our resting energy. The pump maintains our cells’ electrolyte balance, with excess potassium ions inside cells and excess sodium ions outside cells. This concentration gradient creates a voltage across the cell wall, which allows electrical signals to be transmitted in neurons and in muscles. It also provides the energy for processes in cell-membranes. Image by Phi-Gastrein.

Sodium is produced in heavy stars, mainly when atoms of neon gain a proton. (The neon atoms were themselves produced by carbon atoms coming together in nuclear fusion reactions.)
http://www.chemicool.com/elements/sodium.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 10:04 pm 
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Facts about Magnesium
By Dr. Doug Stewart
10 Interesting Facts about Element 12

1. At the center of every chlorophyll molecule, in every green plant, there is a magnesium ion.

2. Magnesium is one of the two dozen or so elements that are essential for life. Magnesium is vital in human metabolism, needed for over 300 biochemical reactions.

3. Magnesium fires must be treated with caution. Adding water to them produces hydrogen, which makes the fire burn even more fiercely.

4. If you try to put out a magnesium fire with carbon dioxide, you’ll also find yourself out of luck: magnesium burns in both pure nitrogen and pure carbon dioxide, and a carbon dioxide fire-extinguisher will feed a magnesium fire.

5. Mag wheels were once made of a magnesium alloy: magnesium is both light and strong. Mag wheels no longer include magnesium; the wheels did not last well and potentially were a fire hazard. Despite the absence of magnesium, the wheels have kept their original name.

6. Magnesium is formed in stars with a mass of eight or more Earth suns. Near the end of their lives, these stars enter the carbon burning phase, also making oxygen, sodium and neon.

7. Magnesium is the second most abundant metal in seawater. (Only sodium is more abundant.)

8. Our bodies need the correct amount of magnesium in our diets for us to sleep properly. If it’s too high or too low, we can suffer from sleep disturbance.

9. About 13% of our planet’s entire mass comes from magnesium. This means there’s enough magnesium within Earth to make a planet of the same mass as Mars AND have enough magnesium left over to make three more objects of the same mass as our moon.

10. There is a significantly higher proportion of magnesium below Earth’s crust than in it.

http://www.chemicool.com/elements/magnesium-facts.html

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 10:05 pm 
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Ang dami namang pinababasa sa atin nang Chemistry teacher natin!
Sir, recess muna! :biglaugh:

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 10:06 pm 
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copy and paste...


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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 10:08 pm 
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Interesting Facts about Calcium
Calcium is the most abundant of the metallic elements in the human body. The average adult body contains about 1 kg or 2 lb of calcium, 99% of which is in the bones and teeth. Only oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen are more abundant in our bodies than calcium.
Calcium not only builds the structures that support our bodies, many of us also live in homes built using structural concrete or cement made with lime (calcium oxide). Snails and many shellfish use another calcium compound – calcium carbonate – to build their own homes too – their shells.
Modern humans were not the first people to make use of calcium to build things. Egypt’s pyramids were built using limestone blocks. Limestone is crystalline calcium carbonate. In the later pyramids, the blocks were held together with gypsum or lime based mortar. Gypsum is calcium sulfate dihydrate and lime is calcium oxide.
Have you ever wanted to be ‘in the limelight?’ Lime is calcium oxide, which produces a brilliant, intense light when burnt in an oxyhydrogen flame. It was used to light the stage in theaters during the 1800s until electricity took over – hence the saying.
Cells in animals and plants must communicate with other cells. This is called signaling. Calcium ions are the most important messengers between cells in living things and are absolutely vital for the existence of multicellular life forms.

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 Post subject: Re: Star Stuff
PostPosted: Thu Jun 26, 2014 10:10 pm 
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Rubidium and Cesium

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